Glossary

Bacterial strain

Bacteria are microscopic single-cell organisms. A bacterial strain comprises bacteria with the same genetic identity.

CFU

Colony-forming units (colonies of cells that grow).

Clinical documentation

Documentation of clinical tests, i.e. studies of products including medicines or foodstuffs carried out on human test subjects. Both healthy volunteers and patients take part in these tests.

Dietary supplement

A foodstuff that is meant to supplement a normal diet and contains concentrated sources of nutrients or other products having nutritional or physiological effects, either on their own or together. Dietary supplements are sold in portion packs, for example in the form of capsules, tablets, sachets or similar.

F2-isoprostanes

An F2-isoprostane is a marker that indicates oxidative stress in the body.

Fibrinogen

A fibrinogen is a protein that stops bleeding by helping the blood coagulate.

Functional food

Foodstuffs that have been enriched with one or more ingredients that have beneficial health effects in addition to the foodstuffs’ normal nutritional value.

Genotype

A genotype is the genetic composition of an organism determined by its DNA sequence.

HDL cholesterol

High levels of HDL cholesterol (“good cholesterol”) indicate a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Primarily, the relationship between HDL and LDL is important. A high level of HDL in relation to LDL reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein.

IBS

An abbreviation for irritable bowel syndrome, a major and widespread disease.

IL-6

IL-6 (interleukin-6) is a type of cytokine. Cytokines are produced by the immune system, often as a response to infection.

Lactic-acid bacteria

A functional group of different bacterial families generally regarded as harmless to the human body. Lactic-acid bacteria occur spontaneously when foodstuffs are fermented.

Lactobacilli

A bacterial family (Lactobacillus) that is closely associated with the various mucosa in the human body and is often present or produced during the fermentation of foodstuffs.

LDL cholesterol

High levels of LDL cholesterol (“bad cholesterol”) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein.

Metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome is a collective term for risk factors that can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, such as cardiac infarctions and stroke. To be diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome, patients must have abdominal fat and at least two of the following:

  • heightened level of triglycerides in the blood
  • low level of HDL cholesterol in the blood
  • high blood pressure
  • reduced glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes

Oxidative stress

Reactive oxygen compounds and nitrogen compounds can damage the cells in the human body. This damage may lead to the development of such illnesses as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Prebiotic

The term “prebiotic” is used to describe the ability of such nutrients as fructo-oligosaccharides to promote the growth of healthy bacteria.

Probiotics

In 2002 a universal definition of the term “probiotic” was proposed by a FAO/WHO working group . They defined probiotics as “Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”.

Product category

Defined product groups within which existing and potential licensees can offer finished products to end-users.

Product-specific health claim

A health claim that applies to a unique product and whose scientific documentation has been reviewed.

Synbiotics

Combination products that contain both prebiotics and probiotics which, when combined, have a greater beneficial health effect than when consumed separately.

Therapy area

An area of use for Probi’s products defined in medical terms, such as immunological problems and IBS. The area covers illnesses caused by such microorganisms as bacteria, viruses, fungal growth, etc.

Triglycerides

Energy is stored in the form of triglycerides in the body’s fat cells. Triglycerides originate in food, but can also be produced in the body from carbohydrates and proteins if these are overconsumed. High levels of triglycerides in the body are linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.